I have Brain Training For Dogs communicated with a few family dogs who have bitten... and most of the time the bite has occurred because "Tucker" felt threatened or was startled from a deep sleep or was being hurt in some way. If the bite occurs when interacting with a family member, the dog will sometimes feel regret and shame at having bitten and caused harm and injury. But not all the time... there are dogs who say "I warned Alice... I growled and told her to leave me alone, but she just kept poking me so I bit her. Then she left me alone." So "Tucker" got his point across and hopefully Alice learned not to poke him anymore. And... hopefully "Tucker's" biting days are over. I always tell people who hire me to talk to their dogs about bites that just because I have a conversation with their dog and ask him why he bit and by-the-way please don't do it anymore... doesn't mean it won't happen again. If the dog is placed in the same scary situation as before, whether real or perceived, he may react the same way and bite another person. There are no easy answers, but certainly keeping the dog out of the scary situation would go a long way to keeping everyone safe, including the dog.